None of them is necessary and the verbal declaration of the intention is not permissible as an obligatory precaution.
1- It is not permitted. 2- It is like the previous issue. 3- Yes, you can ask all religious lawful matters from Allah.
This person can perform qunūt after rukū‘ and then go for sajdah without rukū‘ and continue the prayer.
Perform the number of prayers that you are certain you have missed with the intention of obligatory qaḍā and if you want to perform more than that, perform them with the intention of precautionary qaḍā.
Travelers have the right to perform their prayers in Masjid al-Haraam and Masjid al-Nabi (a.s.) also all of Mecca and Medina complete or shortened and complete prayer is better and there is no difference between old and new Mecca and Medina.
Travelers have the right to choose to perform their prayers in Mecca and Medina in Masjid al-Haraam and Masjid al-Nabi and all over the city of Mecca and Medina whether complete or shortened and complete prayer is better and there is no difference between old and today’s Mecca and Medina.
This person can perform Qunoot after Rokoo’ and then go for prostration without Rokoo’ and continue the prayer.
1- It is not permitted.2- It is like the previous issue.3- Yes, you can ask all religious lawful matters f r o m Allah.
This act is Makrooh unless this is the only way of having presence of the heart (full concentration).
Closing the eyes during prayer is Makrooh but if it is the only way of having presence of the heart (complete concentration) then it is likely to be Mustahab.
The distance between the last house of the departure city and the first house of the destination city should be considered as the distance for prayer to be shortened.
Your going out of your house to the work place and then going to sail from there until reaching the destination are all consider as one travel.